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Calf Milk Replacer

Calf Milk Replacer

After the colostrum, the focus needs to be on growth and development of the calf’s immunity. Poor feeding in the initial days can have immediate consequences for the development of the calf into a productive dairy cow. Start with a high dosage of calf milk replacer directly after the colostrum therefore.

Calf milk replacers (CMRs) provide a convenient way to feed pre-ruminant calves. They  can be stored long term as powder and mixed with water just prior to feeding. Calves can then be milk reared anywhere and at any time without having to source liquid whole milk. Provided the CMR is formulated correctly from good-quality ingredients and fed according to the instructions, which are usually on the CMR bag, calves can grow equally well when reared on CMR and their rumens can develop just as well as they would on a diet of whole milk.

A good-quality milk replacer should be similar in chemical composition to whole milk. It should contain the nutrients that calves can digest and in the right proportions. Most  milk replacers form a clot in the abomasum and so provide a slow release of nutrients to  the duodenum. There are others that do not clot in the abomasum and are primarily digested in the intestines.

Milk replacers are generally formulated from by-products of dairy processing, together with animal fats plus added vitamins and minerals. Whole milk powder consists mainly of lactose (36–40% of DM), fat (30–40% of DM) and milk protein (28–32% of DM). The protein is principally made up of casein, but also includes the whey proteins, albumin and globulin.

Commercial milk replacers usually contain 20–24% protein. Young calves can only digest proteins of milk origin, such as those from skim milk and buttermilk powders. The degree of processing of these powders affects the calves’ ability to digest this protein.

Feeding Fat to Dairy Cows

Feeding Fat to Dairy Cows

Dairy cows need a tremendous amount of energy; a dairy cow weighing 1,400 lb and producing 70 lb/day of milk with 3.6% fat and 3.3% protein needs about 33 Mcal/day of net energy for lactation (NEL). Although the units are somewhat different, this is about 26 times more energy than for a person consuming a recommended 2,000-calorie diet. Concentrates are higher in energy density than forages, but adequate dietary effective fiber is needed to maintain rumen function, so concentrates need to be limited in the diet. Thus, one of the primary purposes of feeding supplemental fat to dairy cows is to increase energy intake. Fats are higher in energy density than carbohydrates and proteins; therefore, adding fat increases the energy density of the diet. At the same time, feed intake must be maintained; otherwise, an increase in energy intake may not occur. Feeding excessive amounts, especially unsaturated fat, can reduce feed intake and occasionally energy intake.

The most common whole oilseeds fed to dairy cows are soybeans and cottonseeds. Because of the value of the oils, the whole seeds of canola, linseed, safflower, and sunflower are not typically fed, but the respective meals that result after the oil is extracted are commonly fed. The amount of oil remaining in some of these meals can be an important contributor to the total amount of fat in the diet. In addition, several plant and animal by-products, such as distiller’s grains (high and low fat available), hominy, fish meal, and meat and bone meal, may contain 10% to 12% fat. Fish meal is fed primarily as a high-quality, rumen-undegradable protein source, and the fatty acid (FA) composition is distinctive, with about 24% of the fat being unsaturated FA with 20 or more carbons. Feeding grease, lard, or tallow requires these fats to be heated for transport, storage, and mixing. Thus, special storage and handling equipment is needed. The costs of this equipment and the handling of liquid feed are deterrents for some producers who blend these sources of fat in diets on the farm.

Several commercial sources of fat are available that are rumen inert ( do not cause reduction of fiber digestibility in the rumen), while some are designed to deliver specific FA to the cow. Most of these are in the form of calcium salts of FA or highly saturated FA. The calcium salt products usually are from palm oil (high in palmitic acid; C16:0) or other plant sources (e.g., soybean) and are in granular form. The highly saturated FA sources are processed into very small beads (prills), much like in a powder form, to aid in digestibility and handling. Some of the commercial fat products are developed to deliver higher amounts of C16:0 to the cows for possibly increasing milk fat yield given that milk has a relative high concentration of C16:0, and C16:0 may be more digestible than C18:0. Other fat sources are enriched in omega-3 FA (usually from aquatic sources or linseed) which may positively influence reproductive and immune function.

Soybean

Soybean meal: a high protein and energy feed source and one of the major protein supplement in rations for dairy cattle.

Soybean

Corn

Nutrient composition of Corn (g/kg)

corn

corn1

Barley

Nutrient composition of  Barley (g/kg)

barely1

winter 2017

Nolan magazine- winter 2009


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Autumn 2016

Nolan magazine- winter 2009


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Pump

Lucky Pro Pumps

Ningbo Time Machinery Industrial Co., Ltd, specializes in manufacturing and exporting water pumps for industrial, residential and agricultural application. Our range includes Peripheral pumps, Centrifugal pumps, Self-priming JET pumps, submersible pumps, Multi-stage pumps, Garden pumps, etc. All pumps are under LUCKYPRO registered brand, and with CE certificate.

We have been in the line of pumps for more than twenty years. Our products have been sold to more than 70 countries, which located in Southeast Asia, Middle East, Europe, North Africa, and Latin America.


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Poultry Farming Equipment

Poultry Farming Equipment

Germany Prullage Systeme

The key to economic success for any livestock farming enterprise is healthy, high-yield animals. However, animal well-being is dependent on many factors. This is why Prüllage offers complete housing solutions for poultry farming. We take care of every single ingredient for success, down to the smallest detail. We provide and fit housing, feed technology, air conditioning, feed storage and electrical engineering. All components are designed to work together and be centrally controlled.

You won‘t find any off-the-shelf systems here. We develop solutions to best suit you, your animals and the demands of your business. Our team of professionals will guide you from your first consultation to build  completion and  into  the  future.

Brothers Heinz and Josef Ludger founded Prüllage Systeme GmbH in 1989. At first, their main focus was on selling animal housing. Later, the business expanded to include a team of in-house technicians, meaning that today we are able to offer complete animal-housing solutions down to installing the electrics.

Meanwhile, the automation arm of the business was also developed. Not only do we have agricultural clients, we also now have industrial and public-sector clients. The facility we work from today in Holdorf was constructed in 1998. The site measures 20,000 m2 and comprises five warehouses and 800 m2 of production floor. This provides the space to implement client requests on any scale. Today, Prüllage Systeme GmbH employs over 75 people.


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Calf Boxes

Calf Boxes

Nolan calf boxes are made of fiberglass manufactured for newly-born calves and have following advantages:

  • Ever-lasting life span
  • Not destructed by sun light
  • Easy mobility in open and covered areas
  • Standard and appropriate air conditioning in cold and warm seasons